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Dietary Exposure, Risk and Toxicological Evaluation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Some Grains (Beans, Soya Beans, Corn, Guinea Corn) from Markets in Nigeria

This study aimed at determining the; quantity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs in beans, soyabeans, corn and guinea corn consumed in South East Nigeria; source of emission; daily intake amount and health risks associated with their consumption among adult male and female individuals. Thirty six grain samples from markets in Eastern part of Nigeria were analyzed of 16 PAHs. The extraction and analysis were respectively by sonication and gas chromatography coupled flame ionization detector, GC-FID. The limif of detection, LOD and limit of quantification, LOQ obtained ranged from 0.03 × 10-3 µg/dm3 - 0.09 × 10-3 µg/dm3 and 0.09 x 10-3 µg/dm3 - 0.25 × 10-3 µg/dm3 respectively. The average recoveries ranged from 94.0% - 99.2%. The ∑16 PAHs concentrations (× 10-2µg/kg) detected ranged from 18.69±1.991 - 28.581±11.213. The mean total of HMW PAHs ranged from 12.673±5.554 - 20.792±2.437. The sum of eight probable carcinogenic PAHs detected ranged from 8.875±2.725 - 13.573±8.793. The mean dietary exposure to PAH for male adult individuals (90.95 µg/kg bw/day) was less than that of female (100.52 µg/kg bw/day) implying that adult female were more exposed. The margin of exposure, MOE values were greater than 10,000 indicating no health concern for risk management actions. The source determination revealed fuel combustion and petrogenic as PAHs emission sources. The TTEC for the cPAHs of the analyzed grains showed non toxicity of the samples. The PAHs detected in the samples were below 1.0 µg/kg which is the permissible limit established by EFSA and are considered safe for consumption.

Margin of Exposure, Dietary Exposure, Grains, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Gas Chromatography

Odika Ifeoma Maryrose, Odidika Collins Chibuzor, Muobike Chidinma Malinda, Okoye Chukwuma Obiajulu. (2023). Dietary Exposure, Risk and Toxicological Evaluation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Some Grains (Beans, Soya Beans, Corn, Guinea Corn) from Markets in Nigeria. International Journal of Environmental Protection and Policy, 11(4), 63-73.

Copyright © 2023 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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