International Journal of Environmental Protection and Policy

Submit a Manuscript

Publishing with us to make your research visible to the widest possible audience.

Propose a Special Issue

Building a community of authors and readers to discuss the latest research and develop new ideas.

Farmers’ Perception and Willingness to Pay for Bamboo Forest Ecosystem Conservation in the Case of Tongo Woreda (Mao Komo Special Woreda), Western Ethiopia

Non-timber forest products such as bamboo constitute an important source of livelihood for millions of people from forest fringe communities across the world. In Ethiopia Non-timber forest products are associated with socio-economic and cultural life of forest dependent communities inhabiting in wide ecological and geo-climatic conditions throughout the country. Despite all this importance to the livelihood of the communities, bamboo forests in Tongo Woreda (Mao Komo Special Woreda) are facing man-made and natural challenges. This study was designed to assess local farmers’ perception and willingness to pay for bamboo forest ecosystem conservation. The main objectives were describing farmer’s perception or level of awareness toward bamboo forest protection, to estimate the amount of money local farmers are willing to pay for the bamboo forest ecosystem conservation and to identify factors affecting the amount of money local farmers are willing to pay for the bamboo forest conservation in Tongo Woreda (Mao Komo Special Woreda), western Ethiopia. For this study primary and secondary data sources were used. The random-sampling techniques were used in selecting 122 respondents following a probability proportional to size sampling method. Besides, data was collected using household survey, focus group discussions (FGDs), and key informant interviews. The value-elicitation used was double bounded dichotomous elicitation format followed by open ended questions. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and bivariate probit model. From the bivariate probit model result the mean willingness to pay for the conservation and rehabilitation of bamboo forest was found 7.77 Ethiopian birr and 2.25 man-days per month per household in cash and labor, respectively. The annual mean willingness to pay of local farmers was estimated to be 93.24 birr in cash and 27 man-days in labor per household. The results indicated that local farmer’s literacy status, total cultivable land owned and contact with extension agents had positive and significant effects on WTP, while age of the respondent, distance of the respondent from bamboo forest and initial bid had a negative and significant effect on willingness to pay. The study showed that the farmers in the study area have already understood that intensive mass flowering of bamboo in the area and massive depletion of forest and, they are willing to participate in the conservation of bamboo forest ecosystem to regenerate and return back to original position. The policy implications drawn from the study findings include the need for improvement to keep up the contribution of community in conservation of bamboo forests ecosystem and other environmental resources and quick rehabilitation and mass bamboo restocking policy that should be designed by the regional government in order to regenerate and conserve the bamboo resources.

Bamboo Forest, Local Farmers, Conservation, Cash, Labor, Bivariate Probit Model

Teha Romanu Benti. (2023). Farmers’ Perception and Willingness to Pay for Bamboo Forest Ecosystem Conservation in the Case of Tongo Woreda (Mao Komo Special Woreda), Western Ethiopia. International Journal of Environmental Protection and Policy, 11(5), 74-85.

Copyright © 2023 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1. Bakala, F., 2017. Market supply determinants of lowland bamboo culms: The case of Homosha district, Northwestern Ethiopia. African Journal of Marketing Management, 9 (4), pp. 46-58.
2. Bessie, S., 2014. Local Communities’ Perceptions of BambooDeforestationin BenishangulGumuz Region, Ethiopia. Journal of Economics and Sustainable, 5 (24), pp. 148-162.
3. Cameron, T. A. and J. Quiggin, 1994. Estimation using contingent valuation data from a dichotomous choice with follow-up questionnaire. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 27 (3): 218–34.
4. Greene, W. H., 2003. Econometric Analysis, 5th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ, US: Prentice Hall.
5. Haab, T. C. & McConnell, K. E. (2002). Valuing Environmental and Natural Resources: The Econometrics of NonMarket Valuation. Edward Elgar Cheltenham, UK Northampton, MA, USA.
6. Lepcha, l. d., 2017. documentation, utilization pattern and economics of non timber forest products of fringe villages in jaldapara national park (doctoral dissertation).
7. Perman, R., 2003. Natural Resource andPractice of the Contingent Valuation Method in the US, EU, and DevelopingPractice of the Contingent Valuation Method in the US and EU.
8. Ros-Tonen, M. and Wiersum, F. 2003. The importance of non-timber forest products for forest-based rurallivelihoods:
9. Sati, V. P. and Vangchhia, L., 2016. A Sustainable Livelihood Approach to Poverty Reduction: An Empirical Analysis of Mizoram, the Eastern Extension of the Himalaya. Springer.
10. Semeneh, B., 2015. Collective Action, Property Rights and Bamboo Deforestation in Benishangul-Gumuz Region, Ethiopia (Doctoral dissertation, Haramaya University).
11. ShafeZelalam, 2019. Determinant of labor contribution for bamboo forest conservation.
12. Siraj, M. L., 2018. Does participatory forest management save the remnant forest in Ethiopia? Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India Section B: Biological Sciences, 88 (1), pp. 1-14.
13. Vankooten, g. c., 2018. Applied welfare economics, trade and agricultural policy analysis.
14. Yamane T. (1967). Statistics: An Introductory Analysis, 2nd Edition. Harper and Row Inc.
15. Zewdu, a., 2017. Factors affecting smallholder farmers participation in rehabilitating degraded forest. The case f gemachis district, west hararghe zone, Oromia region, Ethiopia.